An earthquake of magnitude 6.5 occurred in the afternoon on Sunday 27 December 2020 at 4:39 pm local time near Valdivia, Provincia de Valdivia, Los Rios Region, Chile, as reported by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Witnesses reported underground water flowing up through the soil. [39], Further north the earthquake destroyed numerous houses in the coal-mining town of Lebu. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake of 22 May, 1960 is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. Puerto Octay was the center of a north–south elliptical area in the Central Valley, where the intensity was at the highest outside the Valdivia Basin. [9] East of Puerto Octay, in a hotel in Todos los Santos Lake, stacked plates were reported to have remained in place. [10], The tsunami that struck the coast of southern Chile destroyed seaside farms, killing numerous livestock and people. [42], The sacrifice was learned about by authorities after a boy in the commune of Nueva Imperial denounced to local leaders the theft of two horses; these were allegedly eaten during the sacrifice ritual. The largest earthquake ( Moment magnitude Mw= 9.5) of the 20th century occurred on May 22, 1960 off the coast of South Central Chile. The Valdivia earthquake occurred at 15:11 UTC-4 on 22 May, and affected all of Chile between Talca and Chiloé Island, more than 400,000 square kilometres (150,000 sq mi). Español: Daño producido por un terremoto a casas de madera de buena calidad en Valdivia, Chile, 1960. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. One ship, Canelos, starting at the mouth of the Valdivia River, sank after being moved 1.5 km (0.93 mi) backward and forward in the river; as of 2005, its mast was still visible from the road to Niebla. Its epicenter was near Curanilahue. The 1575 Valdivia earthquake was an earthquake in Chile that caused the subsequent flood of Valdivia much like the 1960 Valdivia earthquake caused the ensuing Riñihuazo flooding. [33], The earthquakes damaged an area that had suffered a long period of economic decline, which began with shifts in trade routes due to the expansion of railroads in southern Chile and the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. [17], All the new infrastructure of the small port of Bahía Mansa was destroyed by the tsunami, that reached heights of up to 10 metres above sea level there. Most of the buildings in the city were destroyed by the earth's movements or by the devastating tsunamis that followed. In the regions of Maule and Bío Bío, houses built from adobe and masonry proved weak, while from Araucanía to the south weak houses were mainly those built with inappropriate wood that had decayed over time. Music source: https://youtu.be/hr4IWrJpge0 Hope you enjoy! [citation needed] In 1974, after the 1971 eruption of Villarrica volcano, the committee was officially founded as ONEMI (Spanish acronym for Ministry of Interior National Emergency Office) when it was authorized by law as an independent governmental office. [9] Excepting poor building sites, the zone of Mercalli scales intensities of VII or more all lay west of the Andes in a strip running from Lota (37° S) southwards. Valdivia Earthquake, Southern Chile. Current local time in Chile – Valdivia. [28], The eruption fed a 5.5 km long fissure on 135° heading where 21 individual vents have been found. Pedro Mariño de Lobera, who was corregidor of Valdivia by that time wrote that the waters of the river opened like the Red Sea, one part flowing upstream and one downstream. [6], The earthquake interrupted and effectively ended Lota's coal miners' march on Concepción as they demanded higher salaries.[7]. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake (Spanish: Gran terremoto de Chile/Valdivia) of 22 May 1960 is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. The wave, most likely produced by an earthquake-triggered sediment slide at the lake bottom, killed two people and destroyed a pier in San Carlos de Bariloche city. Near the city of Valdivia, the earthquake and subsequent aftershocks generated landslides which killed 18 people. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (Spanish: Terremoto de Valdivia) or the Great Chilean earthquake (Gran terremoto de Chile) on 22 May 1960 was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded. [41], In the coastal village Collileufu (La Araucanía Region), native Lafkenches carried out a human sacrifice during the days following the main earthquake. [48], On 27 February 2010 at 03:34 local time, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake occurred just to the north (off the coast of the Maule region of Chile, between Concepción and Santiago). The Valdivia Earthquake recorded the magnitude of 9.5 [47][14], Other lesser earthquakes that preceded the 1960 event occurred in 1737 and 1837. Two days after the earthquake Cordón Caulle, a volcanic vent close to Puyehue volcano, erupted. This potential disaster would have violently flooded all the settlements along the course of the river in less than five hours, with more dire consequences if the dam suddenly broke. The rupture zone was roughly from Valdivia to the south. LOCATION OF THE EARTHQUAKE'S EPICENTER LOCATIONS OF AREAS AFFECTED BY EARTHQUAKES CHILE, ARGENTINA, US, JAPANS, AND PHILLIPEANS. The river turned brown with sediment from landslides and was full of floating debris, including entire houses. Explore Valdivia's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. Soil subsidence also destroyed buildings, deepened local rivers, and created wetlands in such places as the Río Cruces and Chorocomayo, a new aquatic park north of the city. underground water flowing up through the soil, earthquake and landslide occurred in 1575, "Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis at Subduction Zones", "The Largest Earthquake in the World – Articles", "The 1960 Chile earthquake: inversion for slip distribution from surface deformation", "El sufrimiento colectivo de una ciudad minera en declinación. [27] The eruption was first noticed and reported as an explosion by the crew of a United States Air Force plane that was heading to Santiago from Puerto Montt. 1737 Valdivia earthquake - Wikipedia 1737 Valdivia earthquake The 1737 Valdivia earthquake struck south-central Chile on December 24. Further north, the port of Talcahuano did not suffer any major damage, only some flooding. [44], There is evidence that a similar earthquake and landslide occurred in 1575 in Valdivia. Date and Location Took place at 2:11 pm local time on the 22nd of May, 1960. The 1960 Chilean earthquakes were a sequence of strong earthquakes that affected Chile between 21 May and 6 June 1960, centered in the Araucanía, Aysén, and Bío Bío regions of the country. Tsunami The Valdivia earthquake produced a strong tsunami that travelled at a speed of about 200 miles per hour through the Pacific Ocean. World Earthquake Statistics 1. [24] Twenty-seven bulldozers were put into service, but they had severe difficulties moving in the mud near the dams, so dykes had to be constructed with shovels from June onwards. The lack of potable water became a serious problem in one of Chile's rainiest regions. This era of prosperity ended with the 1960 earthquake. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. Valdivia Earthquake, Southern Chile Date and Time. It caused localised tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 metres. Its economy based on fishing, agriculture and industry had grown. Not only were there catastrophic consequences in the South of Chile, the earthquake caused tsunamis that hit Japan (138 people killed), Hawaii (61 people killed) and the Philippines (32 people killed). Megathrust earthquakes generate tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans. [23], During the Great Chilean earthquake, several landslides west of Tralcán Mountain blocked the outflow of Riñihue Lake. The first three quakes, all registering in the planet's top 10 by magnitude for 1960, are grouped together as the 1960 Concepción earthquakes. Queule was connected by road in 1957 to the rest of the country and the town had developed into a balneario. [45] This earthquake was of similar strength and also caused a Riñihuazo. English: Earthquake damage to good quality, wood-frame houses in Valdivia, Chile , 1960. It is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Earth’s history, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. Several months later in April, it caused a flood. The community had gathered in Cerro La Mesa, while the lowlands were struck by successive tsunamis. Despite the heavy rains of 21 May, the city was without a water supply. Huge earthquake hits Chile On May 21, 1960, the first tremor of a series hits Valdivia, Chile. [12] The average slip across all 27 Nazca subfaults was estimated to be 11 m, with 25–30 m of slip 200–500 km south of the epicenter on offshore subfaults. [33] Aided by the United States, a geological survey of Valdivia was done following the earthquake and resulted in the city's first geological map. The focus was relatively shallow at 33 km (21 mi), considering that earthquakes in northern Chile and Argentina may reach depths of 70 km (43 mi). [10] Structures that had been designed to resist earthquakes performed well during the earthquake, chiefly suffering damage when affected by soil subsidence or small fault movements. The eruption ended on 22 July, 59 days later. It had an estimated magnitude of 8.5 on the surface wave magnitude scale and led to the flood of Valdivia, Chile. [17], Santiago, another ship anchored at Corral at the time of the quake, managed to leave Corral in a bad state but was wrecked off the coast of Mocha Island on 24 May. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake (Spanish: Gran terremoto de Chile/Valdivia) of 22 May 1960 is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It occurred on December 16, 1575. The epicenter was near Canete (see map) some 700 km south of Santiago although Valdivia, Chile was the most affected city. May 22, 1960 CE: Valdivia Earthquake Strikes Chile May 22, 1960 CE: Valdivia Earthquake Strikes Chile On May 22, 1960, the largest earthquake in recorded history—magnitude 9.5—struck southern Chile. The earthquake that rocked Chile in 2010, one of the largest in history, measured a magnitude of 8.8. Each meter the water level rose was equivalent to 20 million cubic meters, which meant that 480 million cubic meters of water would release into the San Pedro River (easily overpowering its flow capacity of 400 cubic metres (14,000 cu ft) per second if it rose above the final, 24-meter-high dam. This video is about Chile 1960 Valdivia Earthquake. [37], As a result of the earthquake, an international technological cooperation programme was established in the dairy sector. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake occurred on this date in 1960. The earthquake triggered numerous landslides, mainly in the steep glacial valleys of the southern Andes. [16] Most of the tsunami-related deaths in Japan occurred in the northeast Sanriku region of Honshu. The earthquake was caused by a reverse fault, when the faults move together and the land moves upwards. [9], A seiche of more than 1 meter was observed on Panguipulli Lake following the earthquake. It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 14:11 local time) and its resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Chile’s stock market showed no significant decrease and its sovereign debt rating never decreased – in fact, both of these measures improved following the tragic … Collileufu, located in the Budi Lake area, south of Puerto Saavedra, was in 1960 highly isolated. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake of Sunday, 22 May 1960 is to date the most powerful megathrust earthquake ever recorded on Earth, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. This 2010 Chile earthquake may be related or consequential to the 1960 tremor.[50]. Part of the reason behind this was the limited infrastructure development of the region next to the rupture zone. [8], A number of Spanish-colonial fortifications were completely destroyed. 3. The boats found were used to navigate in Valdivia River and Corral Bay but had drifted into the high sea. (2009). Get Valdivia's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Land subsidence in Corral Bay improved navigability as shoal banks, produced earlier by sediments from Madre de Dios and other nearby gold mines, sank and were compacted. The ensuing damage wiped out roughly 18% of the country’s GDP. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (M w 9.5), 1964 Alaska earthquake (M w 9.2), 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (M w 9.2), and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake (M w 9.0) are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans. Coastal villages, such as Toltén, were struck. Waves as high as 10.7 metres (35 ft) were recorded 10,000 kilometres (6,000 miles) from the epicenter, and as far away as Japan and the Philippines. Together with earthquakes in 1575 and 1837 the earthquake is among the historical predecessors to the great 1960 earthquake. According to the chronicle of Mariño de Lobera, corregidor of Valdivia in 1575, a landslide blocked the outflow of the lagoon of Renigua. A judge ruled that those involved had "acted without free will, driven by an irresistible natural force of ancestral tradition". Some of these areas remain sparsely vegetated while others have naturally developed more or less pure stands of Nothofagus dombeyi. Across southern Chile, the tsunami caused huge loss of life, damage to port infrastructure, and the loss of many small boats. The death toll and monetary losses arising from this widespread disaster are not certain. [46] While the 1575 earthquake is considered the one most similar to that of 1960, it differed in not having caused any tsunami in Japan. The first of these was the 8.1 Mw Concepción earthquake at 06:02 UTC-4 on 21 May 1960. It was the so called Valdivia earthquake that occurred in 1960 in the southern part of the Latin American nation of Chile, about 400 miles south of its capital Santiago. The Earthquake measured 9.5 on the Richter Scale. [37], The economy of the coastal town of Queule had during the 1950s developed significantly. The bulk of the damage in Puerto Montt was located in the neighborhood of Barrio Modelo and the northern part of Bahía Angelmó, where artificial fills subsided. Hundreds of people were already reported dead by the time the tsunami struck. [49] This quake was reported to be centered approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) deep and several miles off shore. To avoid the destruction of the city, several military units and hundreds of workers from ENDESA, CORFO, and MOP started an effort to control the lake. Magnitude: 9.5 Mw ; Deaths: 1,655; Date: May 22nd, 1960; The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake occurred on Sunday, 22 May 1960. Subduction zones are known to produce the strongest earthquakes on earth, as their particular structure allows more stress to build up before energy is released. Various studies have placed it at 9.4–9.6 on the moment magnitude scale. [18], At the coastal town of Queule, a carabinero reported hundreds of people dead or missing some days after the tsunami. A few minutes later, after this 8.3 magnitude earthquake was over, 125 people were dead and a third of the buildings in town lay in ruins. [11] This earthquake probably occurred along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault, meaning in this case that the fault would have moved as a consequence of the 22 May Valdivia earthquake.[11]. At Corral, the main port of Valdivia, the water level rose 4 m (13 ft) before it began to recede. Outside Corral the crew rescued six nearly unconscious and dehydrated children on board two boats. [22][36] The dairy industry was among the few industries of the affected zone that received subsidies and investment after the earthquake. Events in this list and shown in red on our real-time earthquake map and list are considered “significant events’, and they are determined by a combination of magnitude, number of Did You Feel It responses, and PAGER alert level. [37] It received state support through a long-term policy after the earthquake. Yet the country demonstrated a miraculous recovery. One landslide caused destruction and alarm following its blockage of the outflow of Riñihue Lake (see "Riñihuazo" section below). The story was mentioned in a Time magazine article, although with little detail. At 3.11pm, a smaller earthquake was felt in the region and yet another 'smaller' earthquake of 7.5 the day before in Concepción a little to the north. It lasted for 11 to 13 minutes and affected all of Chile between Talca and Chiloé Island, an area more than 400,000 square kilometers. The powerful wave killed 61 people in Hawaii, 32 in the Philippines and138 in Japan . [3] Different sources have estimated the monetary cost ranged from US$400 million to $800 million[5] (or $3.46 billion to $6.91 billion in 2019, adjusted for inflation). The Great Chilean Earthquake occurred in the afternoon (15:11 local time) and its resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleuti… Extensive areas of the city were flooded. The team was led by ENDESA engineer Raúl Sáez. 16 major earthquakes, of the magnitude 7 range, occur each year. [22] On 22 May, a seiche occurred also in Nahuel Huapi Lake, on the Argentine side of the Andes, more than 200 km away from Valdivia. Riñihue Lake is the lowest of the Seven Lakes chain and receives a constant inflow from the Enco River. Earthquakes in Chile. [27], As a result of an evacuation plan, there were no reported human deaths associated with the eruption. [10], It has been estimated that about 40 percent of the houses in Valdivia were destroyed, leaving 20,000 people homeless. The Mapuche spoke primarily Mapudungun. According to preliminary data, the quake was located at a shallow depth of 10 km. The destruction area extended for more than 800 km in a N–S direction. Earthquakes in Chile. These dams were removed later, with the exception of Calafquén Lake, which still retains its dam. The 1837 Valdivia earthquake struck south-central Chile on November 17. The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake occurred on this date in 1960. About 100,000 people lived in the affected zone. There was extensive damage and loss of life at Concepcion, Chile's top industrial city. Its epicenter was near Curanilahue. Waves as high as 10.7 metres were recorded 10,000 kilometres from the epicentre, and as far away as Japan and the Philippines. Many city blocks with destroyed buildings in the city center remained empty until the 1990s and 2000s, with some of them still used as parking lots. [31], Unlike Valdivia, Osorno was saved from major destruction. The area of intensities of VII or more did not penetrate into the Central Valley north of Lleulleu Lake (38° S) and south of Castro (42.5° S).[10]. Some localized tsunamis severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 m (82 ft). [4] One of the main aftershocks occurred on 6 June in Aysén Region. [24] The work was not restricted to the lake; drainages from other parts of the Seven Lakes were dammed to minimize additional flow into Riñihue Lake. Mexico built and donated the public school Escuela México after the earthquake. It occurred in the afternoon. About 100 km (62 mi) south of Riñihue Lake, landslides in the mountains around Golgol River caused the river to dam up; when it burst through the earthen dam, it created a flood down to Puyehue Lake. El caso de Lota, Chile", "El domingo en que Valdivia sufrió el terremoto más violento del mundo", "Further observations of geologic and geomorphic changes resulting from the catastrophic earthquake of May 1960, in Chile", "An Mw =7.7 slow earthquake in 1960 near the Ays´en Fjord region, Chile", "Focal Process of the Great Chilean Earthquake May 22, 1960", "Slip Distribution and Seismic Moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms and Coastal Geodetic Data", "Exploring the Historical Earthquakes Preceding the Giant 1960 Chile Earthquake in a Time-Dependent Seismogenic Zone", Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, "El "Riñihuazo" y su lucha contra la naturaleza", "Investigación aplicada sobre Geografía Urbana: Un caso práctico en la ciudad de Valdivia", "Genesis y manifestación de las inundaciones en el sur de Chile", "Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake", "Tsunami After Deadly Earthquake Hits Chile", "Chile Earthquake Altered Earth Axis, Shortened Day", 22 May 1960 South Central Chile Tsunami Amplitudes, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1960_Valdivia_earthquake&oldid=997661299, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 16:57. Near the generating area, both the earthquake and the tsunami were extremely destructive, particularly in the coastal area extending from Concepcion to the south end of Isla Chiloe. At 3.40pm on 22 May 1960 Valdivia was hit by the strongest recorded earthquake in the world. [46] He said that the Spanish settlers had evacuated and waited on high ground until after the dam burst, but many aboriginals died in the flood waters. [40], After the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, a committee was formed to solve problems caused by the earthquake. The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii. Various estimates of the total number of fatalities from the earthquake and tsunamis have been published, ranging between 1,000 and 6,000 killed. The Valdivia Earthquake took place on the southern coast of Chile, near the city of Valdivia at 3:11 pm (local time) on May 22, 1960. On 24 May, 38 hours after the main shock of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, the Cordón Caulle volcano erupted. These vents produced an output of about 0.25 km3 DRE both in form of lava flows and tephra. [29], The levels of material damage were relatively low given the high magnitude of the earthquake. They were released from prison after two years. These earthquakes formed a southward migrating foreshock sequence to the main Valdivia shock, which occurred just 15 minutes after the third event. The epicenter was near Cañete (see map) some 900 km (435 miles) south of Santiago, with Temuco being the closest large city, while Valdivia was the most affected city. [31], Valdivia's bridges suffered only minor damage. Originating off the coast of southern Chile on May 22, 1960, the temblor caused substantial damage and loss of life both in that country and—as a result of the tsunamis that it generated—in distant Pacific coastal areas. The History of Us® is a registered trademark, View other events that happened on May 22. Homes in Valdivia, Chile, destroyed by the earthquake of 1960. Historians Yoselin Jaramillo and Ismael Basso report that people in Queule decades later know about 50 people to have died because of the earthquake and tsunami.[19]. Then over time when the pressure between the plates reached a maximum, the edge of the plate flicked upwards, causing a massive earthquake and a fault line that extended over a 900-1000 kilometer stretch of the Nazca Plate. [26] The eruption was believed to have been triggered by the earthquake. It caused localised tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 metres (82 ft). intensity: X Mercalli: Casualties: 125 dead: The first was on May 21 at 06:02 UTC-4. Landslide occurred in the northeast Sanriku region of Honshu not collapse tsunami the earthquake... Stands of Nothofagus dombeyi ft ) was reported to be centered approximately kilometres. 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